Library for Academics / Research

Pepperdine Law Review

Comment: Seeking Asylum for Former Child Soldiers and Victims of Human Trafficking

T. Javaherian — February 2012

“This Comment explains that under the current case law, ‘victims of human trafficking’ and ‘former child soldiers’ are unlikely to be found as particular social groups because their persecutors created the groups. This Comment argues that “women from (a given country)” and “children from (a given country)” are valid social groups under which victims of human trafficking and child soldiers, respectively, may claim asylum. There are circuit splits, as well as conflicting holdings within circuits, as to whether gender and youth can define social groups.”

Portland State University

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) in the Portland Metro Area (2013)

C. Carey, L. Teplitsky — August 5, 2013

(1) Quantifies/analyzes demographics, trends, avenues of exploitation, risk factors among Commercially Sexually Exploited Children (CSEC) in the Portland Metro Area; (2) Recommends: (a) Child victims would benefit from 6-18 month stay in residential treatment facility offering rehabilitation/re-integration services in the least-restrictive setting for the recovery process; (b) Enhanced data collection, coordination and tracking is important to CSEC prevention/intervention efforts.

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Fact Sheet

March 2010

Discusses: (1) What is the Commercial Exploitation of Children; (2) How a child becomes a victim; (3) Victims are targeted, deceived, traumatized; (4) Psychology of victimization; (5) Trauma bonding; (6) Potential indicators of trafficking; (7) Statistics.

Northeastern University and Urban Institute Justice Policy Center

Comprehensive Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking

L. Aron, J. Zweig, L. Newmark — June 2006

Discusses: (1) Trafficking Survivors’ Services Needs: Method of Liberation, Changing Needs Over Time; (2) Survivor Experiences with Services/Outcomes; (3) Client Dissatisfaction and Unmet Needs; (3) Coordination Among Service Providers; (4) Challenges and Barriers to Receiving Effective Services, including Using Non-Trafficking-Specific Services and Working with Different Types of Trafficking Victims.

United Nations Human Rights Committee

Concluding Observations on the Fourth Report of the United States (2014)

March 27, 2014

The U.S. “should take all appropriate measures to prevent the criminalization of victims of sex trafficking, including child victims, to the extent that they have been compelled to engage in unlawful activities[;]… review its laws and regulations to ensure full protection against forced labour for all categories of workers and ensure effective oversight of labour conditions in any temporary visa program[; and]…reinforce its training activities and provide training to law enforcement and border and immigration officials, as well as to other relevant agencies such as labour law enforcement agencies and child welfare agencies.”

Journal of the International AIDS Society

Condoms as Evidence of Prostitution in the United States and the Criminalization of Sex Work

M. Wurth, R. Schleifer, M. McLemore, K. Todrys, J. Amon — May 2013

“This article… examines the effects of the practice by police of using condom possession as evidence of prostitution-related offenses… . [T]his police practice can diminish condom use among vulnerable populations, thereby increasing the risk of HIV transmission[;] the use of condom possession as evidence of prostitution-related charges undermines HIV prevention and testing efforts.”

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies: Committee on Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States - Institute of Medicine

E.W. Clayton, R.D. Krugman, P. Simon — September 25, 2013

“The IOM/NRC report offers recommendations concerning strategies for responding to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, new legislative approaches, and a research agenda. The report concludes that efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States require better collaborative approaches. These efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes. The recommendations in the report have the potential to advance and strengthen the nation’s emerging efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors.”