Library for Academics / Research

Sanctuary for Families

Domestic Violence and Sex Trafficking

Discussing the similarities between human trafficking and domestic violence, including the tactics of psychological torture used by the abusers (e.g., Isolation of the victim; Induced debility, producing exhaustion, weakness, or fatigue; Threats of harm to the victim or others; Degradation; Forced drug/alcohol use) and obstacles to accessing help (e.g., Small actions leading victims to hope torture will cease; Traffickers restricting movements; Violence and threats of violence against them and/or their families in their home countries; Psychological coercion, deception, brainwashing that makes them inclined to see themselves as criminals rather than victims; Profound distrust of outsiders).

Polaris Project/National Human Trafficking Resource Center

Domestic Work

Discusses when domestic work becomes trafficking, vulnerabilities (exclusion from certain labor laws, immigrations status), means of control.

Fordham Law Review

Elusive Empowerment: Compensating the Sex Trafficked Person Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act

T. Sangalis — October 2011

Observes that, as of October 2011, not a single suit filed in federal court by sex trafficking survivors under the TVPA has reached the merits, and restitution in connection with the criminal case (the only other statutory means of compensating these survivors) either has not been ordered, not been collected, or been woefully inadequate. Recommends that Congress: (1) Discard T Visa requirements that victims suffer “severe” forms of trafficking and show extreme hardship (not required by the U Visa); (2) Create of federal task forces that partner with organizations/agencies pursuing civil litigation on behalf of trafficking victims; (3) Ensure that mandatory restitution ordered in criminal proceedings under the TVPA is tracked and collected.

Fordham Law Review, vol. 80, p. 403

Elusive Empowerment: Compensating the Sex Trafficked Person Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act

T. Sangalis — 2011

Discusses: (1) Definition and Facts; (2) Factors Causing Sex Trafficking; (3) Victim Experience; (4) The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000: T Visas and Mandatory Restitution; (5) Reauthorization of TVPA; (6) Compensation under the TVPA; (7) Improving the Sex Trafficked Person’s Access to Compensation: (a) Modify the Requirements to Receive Benefits Under the TVPA; (b) Civil Litigation; (c) Collection of Restitution Damages.

California Child Welfare Council

Ending The Commercial Sexual Exploitation Of Children: A Call For Multi-System Collaboration In California

K. Walker — 2013

The Report “identified priority areas for immediate action… : [1] Placement: Establish safe and secure emergency and transitional placements for CSEC victims. [2] Identification: Implement cross-system screening tools to systematically identify CSEC and children at risk of exploitation in order to inform and improve service delivery and placement decisions. [3] Training: Mandate training for all professionals working with youth in child-serving systems… . [4] Data: Develop protocols and strategies to coordinate, collect and share data across systems to better understand the scope of the problem, the level of interaction with multiple systems, and CSEC specific needs.”

Urban Institute, John Jay College

Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy in Eight Major US Cities

M. Dank, B. Khan, et al. — March 2014

“The goals of this study were to: (1) derive a more rigorous estimate of the underground commercial sex economy (UCSE) in eight major US cities and (2) provide an understanding of the structure of this underground economy. To date, no reliable data exist to provide national or state policymakers with a verifiable and detailed understanding of underground commercial sex trade networks or the ways in which these networks interact with one another… . [T]here is no information regarding the relationship between the UCSE and the local commercial sex trade or commercial sex activity conducted over the Internet. This study aimed to close the gap in our understanding about the nature and extent of these activities.”