All Library Items

Freedom Network USA

Child Trafficking for Labor in the U.S.

September 2012

Discussing: (1) What is child labor trafficking; (2) How are children trafficked for their labor; (3) Challenging to identifying/serving child labor trafficking survivors; (4) Recommendations.

Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, Vol. 2: Iss. 1

Children at Risk


Collection of, links to, articles on human trafficking, including topics on: (1) Awareness, data, policy; (2) Assessing needs, vulnerabilities, survivorship of victims and their children; (3) Runaway and throwaway youth; (4) Sex trafficking of minors; (5) Sex tourism on the Southern Border; (6) Role of health care providers; (7) Resources.

Immigrant Justice Project, Southern Poverty Law Center

Civil Litigation on Behalf of Victims of Human Trafficking

D. Werner — October 13, 2008

Manual for civil attorneys representing trafficking victims, discussing: (1) Logistical Concerns (Pros/Cons, Co-Counseling, Working with a Parallel Criminal Prosecution, Client Credibility, Handling Release/Waiver Signed by Client, Limitations on Certain Cases); (2) Procedure (Protecting Client from Traffickers, Individual Actions vs. Class Actions); (3) When/Where to File Civil Action; (4) Whom to Name as Defendant; (5) When to Include Jury Demand; (6) Service of Process; (7) Causes of Action (TVPA, 13th Amendment Implied Rights of Action, Alien Tort Claims Act, RICO, Fair Labor Standards Act, Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act, Title VII, 42 U.S.C. §1981, Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, 1871, Torts, Contract and Quasi-Contract Claims); (8) Damages.

National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse, National District Attorneys Association

Civil Remedies for Human Trafficking Victims

January 2012

Compilation of state and federal legislation, session laws, codified statutes relating to civil remedies for trafficking victims as of January 2012.

The Code

Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism

The Tourism Child Protection Code of Conduct (The Code) is an instrument of self-regulation and Corporate Social Responsibility, which aims to provide increased protection to children from sexual exploitation in travel and tourism. It is based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and requires commitment from all levels of the signatory company’s business. Almost 1000 companies have signed The Code across the globe. The initiative, which started as a project of ECPAT International, has been endorsed by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and many national governments.

International Labour Organization

Combating Forced Labour: A Handbook for Employers and Business

October 22, 1998

Provides practical tools and guidance to enable businesses to identify and prevent situations of forced labor, including guidance on preventive/remedial actions, good practices in combating forced labor, and links to other resources.

McGeorge Law Review

Combating Human Trafficking by Enhancing Awareness Through Public Postings

S. Dyle — 2013

“[R]equiring certain businesses and establishments to conspicuously post a human trafficking notice may raise awareness and educate individuals on the warning signs of human trafficking. These notices will bring awareness to the general public and, in turn, that awareness will lead to more tips to law enforcement. A public posting, informing both victims and the general public that human trafficking is a crime, victims have rights, and there are non-governmental organizations willing to assist victims, is a significant step in combating human trafficking.”

Citation: 44 McGeorge L. Rev. 583 (2013)

U.S. Department of Defense

Combating Trafficking in Persons

Trafficking in Persons is a leading source of profits for organized crime, together with drugs and guns, generating billions in profits. Defines Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, Child Soldiering.

Pepperdine Law Review

Comment: Seeking Asylum for Former Child Soldiers and Victims of Human Trafficking

T. Javaherian — February 2012

“This Comment explains that under the current case law, ‘victims of human trafficking’ and ‘former child soldiers’ are unlikely to be found as particular social groups because their persecutors created the groups. This Comment argues that “women from (a given country)” and “children from (a given country)” are valid social groups under which victims of human trafficking and child soldiers, respectively, may claim asylum. There are circuit splits, as well as conflicting holdings within circuits, as to whether gender and youth can define social groups.”

Portland State University

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) in the Portland Metro Area (2013)

C. Carey, L. Teplitsky — August 5, 2013

(1) Quantifies/analyzes demographics, trends, avenues of exploitation, risk factors among Commercially Sexually Exploited Children (CSEC) in the Portland Metro Area; (2) Recommends: (a) Child victims would benefit from 6-18 month stay in residential treatment facility offering rehabilitation/re-integration services in the least-restrictive setting for the recovery process; (b) Enhanced data collection, coordination and tracking is important to CSEC prevention/intervention efforts.

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Fact Sheet

March 2010

Discusses: (1) What is the Commercial Exploitation of Children; (2) How a child becomes a victim; (3) Victims are targeted, deceived, traumatized; (4) Psychology of victimization; (5) Trauma bonding; (6) Potential indicators of trafficking; (7) Statistics.

Northeastern University and Urban Institute Justice Policy Center

Comprehensive Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking

L. Aron, J. Zweig, L. Newmark — June 2006

Discusses: (1) Trafficking Survivors’ Services Needs: Method of Liberation, Changing Needs Over Time; (2) Survivor Experiences with Services/Outcomes; (3) Client Dissatisfaction and Unmet Needs; (3) Coordination Among Service Providers; (4) Challenges and Barriers to Receiving Effective Services, including Using Non-Trafficking-Specific Services and Working with Different Types of Trafficking Victims.

United Nations Human Rights Committee

Concluding Observations on the Fourth Report of the United States (2014)

March 27, 2014

The U.S. “should take all appropriate measures to prevent the criminalization of victims of sex trafficking, including child victims, to the extent that they have been compelled to engage in unlawful activities[;]… review its laws and regulations to ensure full protection against forced labour for all categories of workers and ensure effective oversight of labour conditions in any temporary visa program[; and]…reinforce its training activities and provide training to law enforcement and border and immigration officials, as well as to other relevant agencies such as labour law enforcement agencies and child welfare agencies.”

Journal of the International AIDS Society

Condoms as Evidence of Prostitution in the United States and the Criminalization of Sex Work

M. Wurth, R. Schleifer, M. McLemore, K. Todrys, J. Amon — May 2013

“This article… examines the effects of the practice by police of using condom possession as evidence of prostitution-related offenses… . [T]his police practice can diminish condom use among vulnerable populations, thereby increasing the risk of HIV transmission[;] the use of condom possession as evidence of prostitution-related charges undermines HIV prevention and testing efforts.”