All Library Items

Fordham Law Review, vol. 80, p. 403

Elusive Empowerment: Compensating the Sex Trafficked Person Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act

T. Sangalis — 2011

Discusses: (1) Definition and Facts; (2) Factors Causing Sex Trafficking; (3) Victim Experience; (4) The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000: T Visas and Mandatory Restitution; (5) Reauthorization of TVPA; (6) Compensation under the TVPA; (7) Improving the Sex Trafficked Person’s Access to Compensation: (a) Modify the Requirements to Receive Benefits Under the TVPA; (b) Civil Litigation; (c) Collection of Restitution Damages.

Fordham Law Review

Elusive Empowerment: Compensating the Sex Trafficked Person Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act

T. Sangalis — October 2011

Observes that, as of October 2011, not a single suit filed in federal court by sex trafficking survivors under the TVPA has reached the merits, and restitution in connection with the criminal case (the only other statutory means of compensating these survivors) either has not been ordered, not been collected, or been woefully inadequate. Recommends that Congress: (1) Discard T Visa requirements that victims suffer “severe” forms of trafficking and show extreme hardship (not required by the U Visa); (2) Create of federal task forces that partner with organizations/agencies pursuing civil litigation on behalf of trafficking victims; (3) Ensure that mandatory restitution ordered in criminal proceedings under the TVPA is tracked and collected.

National Archives and Records Administration

Emancipation Proclamation by President of the United States Abraham Lincoln

January 1, 1863

President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” Additional Relevant Links: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/emancipation_proclamation/

California Child Welfare Council

Ending The Commercial Sexual Exploitation Of Children: A Call For Multi-System Collaboration In California

K. Walker — 2013

The Report “identified priority areas for immediate action… : [1] Placement: Establish safe and secure emergency and transitional placements for CSEC victims. [2] Identification: Implement cross-system screening tools to systematically identify CSEC and children at risk of exploitation in order to inform and improve service delivery and placement decisions. [3] Training: Mandate training for all professionals working with youth in child-serving systems… . [4] Data: Develop protocols and strategies to coordinate, collect and share data across systems to better understand the scope of the problem, the level of interaction with multiple systems, and CSEC specific needs.”

Urban Institute, John Jay College

Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy in Eight Major US Cities

M. Dank, B. Khan, et al. — March 2014

“The goals of this study were to: (1) derive a more rigorous estimate of the underground commercial sex economy (UCSE) in eight major US cities and (2) provide an understanding of the structure of this underground economy. To date, no reliable data exist to provide national or state policymakers with a verifiable and detailed understanding of underground commercial sex trade networks or the ways in which these networks interact with one another… . [T]here is no information regarding the relationship between the UCSE and the local commercial sex trade or commercial sex activity conducted over the Internet. This study aimed to close the gap in our understanding about the nature and extent of these activities.”

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families

Evidence-Based Mental Health Treatment for Victims of Human Trafficking, prepared for Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)

E. Williamson, N. Dutch, H. Clawson — April 2010

This Issue Brief examines the evidence-based research for treating common mental health conditions experienced by victims of human trafficking. This topic was identified at the National Symposium on the Health Needs of Human Trafficking Victims. Contents include: (1) Victims’ Mental Health Needs; (2) Trauma-Informed Services; (3) Evidence-Based Treatment for Symptoms/Diseases Associated with Human Trafficking. Additional Relevant Links: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/HumanTrafficking/MentalHealth/index.pdf

37 Washington University Journal of Law & Policy 183

Examining the Reality of Foreign National Child Victims of Human Trafficking in the U.S.

B. Carr — 2011

Discussing the need for amendments of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) to allow for more careful classification of whether a child is a victim, provide trafficked children with the opportunity to apply for a T Visa without making it contingent on cooperating with law enforcement, provide a timely, realistic route for child victims to reunite with family.

Washington University Journal of Law and Policy

Examining the Reality of Foreign National Child Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States

B. Carr — 2011

Discusses extending the “snapshot moment” (the initial encounter between victims and law enforcement) to better determine whether a child is considered a victim or criminal; absent a presumption in favor of classifying such a child as a trafficking victim, the child should be provided access to an attorney before the decision is made or, at a minimum, victim witness specialists trained to interview traumatized children should interview all children who might be trafficking victims. Advocates that: (1) individuals above the age of 18, who were trafficked as children, should be eligible to apply for a T Visa regardless of whether they cooperate with law enforcement; (2) amendment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) to prioritize and facilitate family reunification.

The White House

Executive Order—Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts (2012)

President Barack Obama — September 25, 2012

Executive Order, modeled on successful practices in the private sector, strengthens protections against trafficking in persons in Federal contracting and helps to protect vulnerable individuals as contractors and subcontractors perform vital services and manufacture the goods procured by the United States. Requirements include annual certifications, compliance plans, self-reporting.

U.S. Department of Education

Fact Sheet for Schools: Human Trafficking of Children in the U.S

Discusses: (1) What is Human Trafficking; (2) How Does Human Trafficking Affect Our Schools; (3) Identification of a Victim of Human Trafficking; (4) Reporting a Suspected Incidence of Human Trafficking; (5) U.S. Government Assistance for Trafficking Victims; (6) Informational Resources.

released by The White House, Office of the Press Secretary

Fact Sheet: Obama Administration Announces Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking at Home and Abroad

Discusses: (1) Executive Order Strengthening Protections in Federal Contracts; (2) Tools and Training to Identify and Assist Trafficking Victims; (3) Increased Resources for Victims; (4) Federal Strategic Action Plan (Global Business Coalition Against Trafficking, U.S. Travel Association’s Anti-Trafficking Tool Kit, Counter-Trafficking in Persons Campus Challenge, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health Research Partnership with Goldman Sachs Foundation and Advisory Council on Child Trafficking, Made in the Free World Initiative, etc.).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families, Office of Refugee Resettlement

Fact Sheets, prepared for Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)

Fact Sheets discussing: (1) National Human Trafficking Resource Center; (2) Human Trafficking (Definition, How Victims are Trafficked; Trafficking vs. Smuggling); (3) Sex Trafficking; (4) Labor Trafficking (Forms, Identifying Victims, Health Impacts); (5) Victim Assistance (Benefits and Services Available to Victims, Temporary Immigration Status and Relief); (6) Federal Efforts to Assist Victims of Human Trafficking; (7) Certification for Adult Victims of Trafficking (T Visa, Continued Presence); (8) Child Victims of Human Trafficking (Definition, Identification, Reporting, Assistance).

Additional Relevant Links:

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-human-trafficking

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-sex-trafficking-english

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-labor-trafficking-english

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-victim-assistance-english

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-federal-efforts-to-assist-victims-of-human-trafficking

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-certification-for-adult-victims-of-trafficking

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-child-victims-of-human-trafficking

Abt Associates, Inc.

Final Report on the Evaluation of the First Offender Prostitution Program, Abt Associates, Inc., prepared for Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice

M. Shively, et al. — March 7, 2008

The First Offender Prostitution Program (FOPP) is designed to reduce the demand for commercial sex/human trafficking in San Francisco by educating men arrested for soliciting prostitutes (“johns”) about the negative consequences of prostitution. Eligible arrestees have the choice of paying a fee and attending a one-day class (“john school”), or being prosecuted. Findings include FOPP: (1) Has been effective in substantially reducing recidivism among men arrested for soliciting prostituted women; (2) Is cost-effective; and (3) Is transferable, having been successfully replicated in other locations.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families

Finding a Path to Recovery: Residential Facilities for Minor Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking, prepared for Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)

H. Clawson, L. Grace — September 2007

This Issue Brief focuses on minors who are victimized by sex traffickers across the U.S. It is intended to provide practical information about the characteristics and needs of these minors and describe the type of residential programs and facilities currently providing services for this population. The promising practices discussed here were identified by directors and staff of residential facilities housing and serving minor victims of domestic trafficking, juvenile corrections facilities, programs for runaway and homeless youth, child protective services personnel, and law enforcement. Contents include: (1) Impacts of Domestic Sex Trafficking on Minors; (2) Current Challenges and Limitations to Serving this Population; (3) Promising Practices from the Field: Residential Facilities.

National Opinion Research Center (NORC)

Finding Victims of Human Trafficking, National Opinion Research Center (NORC) of the University of Chicago presented to National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice

P. Newton, T. Mulcahy, S. Martin — October 2008, University of Chicago

Discusses: (1) Definition of human trafficking; (2) Persons engaged in human trafficking; (3) Challenges to identifying and working with victims; (4) Recognizing signs and symptoms; (5) Willingness to prosecute trafficking cases; (6) Overcoming barriers to assisting labor trafficking victims; (7) Demographic characteristics of persons engaged in human trafficking; (8) Demographic characteristics of perpetrators of human trafficking; (9) Criminal justice system intervention; (9) Comparisons between sex trafficking and work in the sex industry; (10) Estimated dollar amount from commercial sex economy; (11) Recommendations.

Additional Relevant Links: http://www3.norc.org/projects/Finding+Victims+of+Human+Trafficking.htm; http://www.norc.org/Experts/Pages/timothy-mulcahy.aspx