Library for Judiciary

Free the Slaves and Human Rights Center, University California, Berkeley

Hidden Slaves: Forced Labor in the United States

September 2004

Discusses: (1) What is Forced Labor? (2) Identifying Victims; (3) The Number, Geographical Distribution, Origins, of Victims; (4) Victims’ Economic and Demographic Sectors (Prostitution/Sex Services, Domestic Service, Agriculture, Sweatshops); (5) U.S. Legal Response to Forced Labor (Domestic Legislation, U.S. Relation to International Trends); (6) Implementation/Enforcement of U.S. Laws; (7) Health and Medical Consequences of Forced Labor; (8) Social and Legal Services; (9) Recommendations.

Northeastern University and Urban Institute Justice Policy Center

Human Trafficking Cases Slipping Through the Cracks in Federal and State Legal Systems

June 21, 2012

Study found: (1) A significant lack of awareness about human trafficking among practitioners and law enforcement; (2) A focus on sex trafficking disproportionate to the larger issue of human trafficking; (3) challenges in identification, investigation, prosecution result in trafficking cases not being recognized or falling through the cracks; and provides recommendations to improve identification, investigation, prosecution of domestic trafficking.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families

Human Trafficking Into and Within the United States: A Review of the Literature, prepared for Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)

August 2009

Review of literature on human trafficking into and within the United States, focusing on issues of identifying and effectively serving trafficking victims. Discusses: (1) What is Human Trafficking; (2) How Prevalent is Human Trafficking Into and Within the U.S.; (3) Who are the Victims of Human Trafficking (Commonality, Risk Factors, Minor Victims, Runaway/Homeless Youth); (4) What are the Needs of Trafficking Victims; (5) How are Victims Identified; (6) Available Services (Adults, Minors); (6) Barriers to, Challenges in, Accessing/Providing Services; (7) Promising Services/Strategies (Trauma-Informed Programming, Involving Survivors in Developing/Providing Services, Identification, Education/Outreach, Prevention, Intensive Case Management, Housing/Shelter Services, Legal Services, Medical Services, Social Services, Trauma Therapy, Substance Abuse Treatment).

University of Michigan Law School Human Trafficking Clinical Program (Michigan)

Human Trafficking Law Project


“Launched in February 2011 by the Human Trafficking Clinic at Michigan Law School, the Human Trafficking Law Project is the first publicly available database of human trafficking cases within the United States. Through the HTLP, the Clinic hopes to strengthen anti-trafficking laws in the United States and to support government officials, law enforcement agencies, and practitioners who are working on behalf of human trafficking victims. The human trafficking database is an ongoing project.”