Library for Law Enforcement

Laws of California

California Proposition 35: Californians Against Sexual Exploitation Act (CASE Act) (2012)

Passed November 6, 2012

(1) Increases criminal penalties for human trafficking, including prison sentences up to 15-years-to-life and fines up to $1,500,000; (2) Fines collected to be used for victim services and law enforcement; (3) Requires person convicted of trafficking to register as sex offender; (4) Prohibits evidence that victim engaged in sexual conduct from being used against victim in court proceedings; (5) Requires human trafficking training for police officers.

Fordham Law Review

Can Condoms be Compelling? Examining the State Interest in Confiscating Condoms from Suspected Sex Workers

M. Newcomer — November 2013

“Confiscating condoms from suspected sex workers leaves them at risk for HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unwanted pregnancy. Yet, police officers in New York, Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles collect condoms from sex workers to use against them as evidence of prostitution… . In the landmark case of Griswold v. Connecticut, the U.S. Supreme Court established a fundamental privacy right in the use and access of contraceptive devices… . This Note shows that by taking condoms from suspected sex workers, police officers and departments are actually violating sex workers’ constitutional right to privacy, and, therefore, the practice must be abandoned.”

Citation: 82 Fordham L. Rev. 1053 (November 2013)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Case Management and the Victim of Human Trafficking: A Critical Service for Client Success, prepared for Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)

H. Clawson, N. Dutch — June 2008

This Issue Brief focuses on the importance of case management in working with international victims of human trafficking from the point of identification until a victim reaches self-sufficiency. The brief looks at the characteristics of an effective case manager along with the benefits not only to victims, but also other key stakeholders, including law enforcement and service providers. It also examines the challenges to effective case management and the implications for victim recovery. Topics discussed include: (1) Legislative Background and Understanding the Need for Case Management; (2) The Role of the Case Manager; (3) Challenges, Limitations, and Benefits to Case Management; (4) Benefits of Case Management for Victims, Law Enforcement, and Prosecutors; (5) Promising Approaches to Effective Case Management.

Northeastern University and Urban Institute Justice Policy Center

Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents


Human Trafficking Reporting System collects federal, state, local data on victims and offenders involved in human trafficking incidents investigated by federally-funded human trafficking task forces. The project was launched in 2008 and is currently collecting data throughout the U.S. The most recent report on HTRS data is Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2008-2010. Additional Relevant Links:

U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Human Trafficking Reporting System

Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2008-2010

April 28, 2011

Discusses the characteristics of human trafficking investigations, suspects, and victims in cases opened by federally funded task forces between January 2008 and June 2010. This report provides information about investigations, persons involved in suspected and confirmed incidents of human trafficking, and case outcomes. Data are from the Human Trafficking Reporting System (HTRS), which was created in response to a congressional mandate in the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 for biennial reporting on the scope and characteristics of human trafficking. HTRS captures information on human trafficking investigations conducted by state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States.

U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics

Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2008-2010

D. Banks, T. Kyckelhahn — April 2011

Describes the characteristics of human trafficking investigations, suspects, victims in cases opened by federally funded task forces between January 2008 and June 2010. Additional Relevant Lins: